Fricatives are consonants that are formed by impeding the flow of air somewhere in the vocal apparatus so that a friction-sound is produced. Because of the way the flow of breath is heard in producing fricatives, fricatives are also called spirants. Fricatives may be voiced (vocal cords vibrating during the articulation of the fricative) or voiceless (vocal cords not vibrating during the articulation of the fricative). Here is a list of the fricatives in Present-Day English.
1. /f/ (the phoneme spelled f in fine): voiceless labiodental fricative.
2. /v/ (the phoneme spelled v in vine): voiced labiodental fricative.
3. /q/ (the phoneme spelled th in thistle): voiceless interdental fricative.
4. /ð/ (the phoneme spelled th in this): voiced interdental fricative.
5. /s/ (the phoneme spelled s in sue): voiceless alveolar fricative.
6. /z/ (the phoneme spelled z in zoo): voiced alveolar fricative.
7. /s</ (the phoneme spelled sh in shore): voiceless alveopalatal fricative.
8. /z</ (the phoneme spelled z in azure): voiced alveopalatal fricative.
9. /h/ (the phoneme spelled h in hot): voiceless fricative, produced at various points depending upon the vowels in the vicinity. For example, in hot, /h/ is velar, whereas in heat, /h/ is alveopalatal.
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