SOUND-CHANGES

The sound-changes affecting the phonemic structure of English are listed under the historical period when each change occurred.

 

Sound-Changes in OE

Breaking of Vowels
Lengthening of Vowels Before Consonants
Loss of Vowel Quality in Unstressed Syllables
Palatal Diphthongization of Vowels
Raising of OE /a/ to OE /æ/

Raising of Vowels Before a Nasal

Shortening of Vowels
Umlaut of Vowels
Unrounding of Vowels

Sound-Changes in ME

Influence of "R" on Vowels
Influence on Vowels of Following /l/ or Preceding /w/

Intrusive Consonants in Middle English
Lengthening of Vowels in Open Syllables
Loss of Consonants in Various Phonetic Environments in Middle English
Loss of Unstressed Final "E"

Loss of Vowel Quality in Unstressed Syllables
Lowering of OE /æ/ to ME /a/

Middle English Diphthongs
Rounding of ME /a:/
Shortening of Vowels
Smoothing of Diphthongs
Unrounding of Vowels
Vocalizing of Velar Fricative


Sound-Changes in EME

Assibilation
Compensatory Lengthening of Vowels
Early Modern English Alternation of /d/ and /ð/
The Formation of "NG"
The Great Vowel Shift
Influence of "R" on Vowels
Influence on Vowels of Following /l/ or Preceding /w/
Loss of Consonants in Various Phonetic Environments in Early Modern English
Raising of Vowels Before a Nasal
Shortening of Vowels
Smoothing of Diphthongs
Spelling Pronunciations in Early Modern English
Unrounding of Vowels